Centre for Human Security, Environmental and Public Health

The twenty-first century is marked by profound changes in regard of security environment. The world is becoming increasingly complex and interdependent, whilst the sustainable development phenomenon is exerting itself as an irreversible process. The indissolubility and measurability of “development” and “security” has become obvious, as well as their dialectic interconnection and interdependence.
Human development needs to be addressed today as a trial range of options, among the ones people value. This extension needs to be based on basic human capacity, such as the ability to read and write, to have knowledge, to be healthy and well fed, to have shelter and be mobile, and to have a stable future.

In accordance with the concept of human development, there are four basic components: equality as equal access to opportunities; sustainability as the responsibility for future generations as well as for today`s generation; the productivity of investigations in human resources and creating a macroeconomic environment that would allow people to reach their full potential; sense of decision-making, meaning that people should achieve a level of individual development which would allow them to exercise options based on their desires, in a broader framework of the existing opportunity.
Focusing attention on human development reflects a shift of the main goals, in accordance with which social reforms are adopted in the contemporary world. Man and his vital needs are considered fundamental, of supreme value, whilst the material factors, the income or growth of consumption is no longer a fundamental central condition, but a means to ensure sustainable human development.
It is remarkable that this review of goals and means of social development is just a return to general concepts about the world that are characteristic to human culture in general, including European culture.
Human development cannot be achieved without human security. Human security usually implies a condition in which people can exercise their options in safety and freedom, without fear that the opportunities they enjoy today will be lost or withdrawn tomorrow. Security means that the benefits obtained by people in the effort of expanding their opportunities and capabilities, are protected by current social, economic and political arrangements. Security is based on a broad social acceptance – based on sustainable institutions – the rights and obligations of people.
In the early ’90s, with the end of the Cold War, a new understanding of human security has been introduced. The danger of nuclear annihilation of mankind has weakened the concept of human security causing a shift from the military to the humanitarian sphere – that of life and human dignity.
From the methodological standpoint, the introduction of the “human security” category is undoubtedly a positive factor, due to its integral feature that reflects both objective and subjective aspects of human social life.
Security was approached as a multidimensional concept, not only in regard of weapons and their use, but also in regard of everything related to human safety: society, economy, environment, etc. Consequently, theoretical approaches have culminated in a global initiative with strong support and a substantial contribution of scientists who launched the concept of human security, essential for life and dignity of human beings, an idea that will undoubtedly mark the meaning of global society evolution in the 21`st century.
Human security concept of sustainable development emphasizes its following features:
• Human security is a universal problem. It concerns people everywhere, in poor countries, above all, but also in rich countries. Many threats are common to all peoples, such as human rights violations, crime, drugs, pollution and unemployment. Their intensity varies from country to country, from region to region, but as a whole, all these threats are real and growing.
• Human security elements are interdependent. When public safety is in danger anywhere in the world, all nations can be involved in some way. Famine, epidemics, pollution, drug trafficking, terrorism, ethnic tensions, social disintegration are no longer isolated events, confined within national borders. Their consequences can extend on a regional or even global scale.
• It is easier to assure human security by providing prevention measures .It is less costly to act on threats, dangers, when they appear, before they become a permanent factor.
• Security concerns the manner in which the individual is integrated in society, how much freedom he has to exercise its right of option in a vast array of possibilities.
The concepts of “sustainable development” and “human security” are related, interdependent, but not identical. Of course, between human development and human security is an interconnection: progress in one area extends the possibilities for progress in the other, and vice versa. As for the concept of human security, as with other fundamental concepts (such as human freedom), is much easier to detect the lack of security than its existence.
Human security has always been under the international public eye ever since the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948): “Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person” (Article 3); ” Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.”(Article 22)
The problem of human security is two folded: firstly, it involves the absence of certain dangers such as hunger, illness, or retaliation; secondly, it involves the protection of the individual against unwanted events of daily life (illness, accidents at work, in society).
Human security is a phenomenon with many components: economic security, food security, health security, environmental security, personal security, public security, political security.
The before-mentioned structural elements of human security are particularly important for people in any country in any social situation, but present security issues are required to be formulated and solved from a future standpoint.
Nowadays, the notion of “sustainable development” is the key concept in developing new paradigms for human survival, in shaping new ways of managing social systems.
The current situation of mankind requires a new development model as well as new security objectives. Scholars today propose to realize new imperatives for the twenty-first century:
• The intellectual imperative, whose essence is to advance the quality of social intellect.
• The strengthening of security imperative, which should be based on two main elements: to strengthen the sense of trust between people, following the information links within the state and to carry out cooperation among states.
• The seamless connection between security and sustainable development imperative: only their unity can act effectively in achieving the new goal, dominated by prosperity and security.
• The new quality of life insurance imperative, which will lead to a common ground in science, technology, economy and ecology.
The traditional contemplation of development, accompanied by security, will help achieve the basic principles of security in the transition towards sustainable development:
• Overall security assurance is possible in a global sustainable development. Promoting global security has in its foreground the socio – natural aspects, allowing preservation of the biosphere and civilization.
• Security, in this new development model, provides major opportunities for improving social intellect necessary for creating the noosphere.
In this context, the noosphere is interpreted as a security category – it is an actual state of civilization that will occur during the survival of mankind and the latter transition to a sustainable and safe development as a result of eliminating threats and global disasters.

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